Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the only industrial gas used as an ingredient in the production of carbonated beverages. It is therefore subject to the highest quality requirements by beverage manufacturers due to the potential risk of contamination of the beverage by the gas.
CO2 is produced as a by-product (or co-product) of a chemical or industrial process, fermentation, combustion or separated from a waste stream. It can also occur naturally from underground geo thermal activity.
All sources of carbon dioxide have source specific impurities that can be present in variable concentrations, the levels are reduced by gas purification plants operated by industrial gas producers, however small traces can still be present. It is also possible that contamination of purified product can occur through handling and distribution or cross-contamination of the product.
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