Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and syngas (mixture of both H2 and CO) are used in a variety of industrial sectors. The largest applications of these industrial gases are in refining and petrochemicals. Tonnage quantities of hydrogen are used for refining crude oil. In addition, H2, CO, and syngas are used in various chemical synthesis reactions.
The main consumers of large tonnage quantities of hydrogen have to deal with a number of challenges, e.g. fluctuating supply and demand, extreme price volatility, and market uncertainty. Therefore, investment decisions on plant projects have to be made on a sound basis, considering all factors over the complete lifetime of a plant. The most efficient and economic plant design has to be developed long before the actual start of the project. This includes an in-depth assessment of capital and operating costs, which take plant reliability and process safety into account.
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