The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has achieved a major milestone in the development of rocket systems for satellite launches. This makes India the sixth nation to have developed a cryogenic stage in rocketry.

ISRO successfully hot tested the cryogenic upper stage for geosynchronous launch vehicle (GSLV) on 28th October for 50 seconds at the liquid propulsion systems centre (LPSC) test complex at Mahendragiri. The performance of the test was as predicted and was the first of its kind in the country.

The stage uses the cryogenic propellants namely liquid hydrogen at -260ºC and liquid oxygen at -183ºC.

The Indian industries have significantly contributed in the realisation of the cryogenic stage. After completion of the qualification tests, the indigenous cryogenic stage is planned to be flight tested in GSLV- D3 mission next year.

The others who have so far used cryogenic stages in their rockets to put heavy satellites in orbit are the U.S, Russia, European space agency, China and Japan.